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java与es8实战之五:SpringBoot应用中操作es8(带安全检查:https、账号密码、API Key)
来源:cnblogs  作者:程序员欣宸  时间:2023/8/30 9:11:53  对本文有异议

欢迎访问我的GitHub

这里分类和汇总了欣宸的全部原创(含配套源码):https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos

本篇概览

  • 本篇是《java与es8实战》系列的第五篇,总体目标明确:实战在SpringBoot应用中操作elasticsearch8,今天的重点是SpringBoot应用连接带有安全检查的elasticsearch8服务端
  • 连接需要安全检查的elasticsearch8是为了更接近真实环境,首先,连接是基于自签证书的https协议,其次,认证方式有两种
  1. 第一种是账号密码
  2. 第二种是es服务端授权的API Key

在这里插入图片描述

  • 今天的实战总体目标可以拆解为两个子任务
  1. 在SpringBoot中连接elasticsearch8
  2. 在SpringBoot中使用elasticsearch8官方的Java API Client
  • 接下来直接开始

部署elasticsearch集群(需要安全检查)

创建API Key

  • 除了账号密码,ES还提供了一种安全的访问方式:API Key,java应用持有es签发的API Key也能顺利发送指令到es,接下来咱们先生成API Key,再在应用中使用此API Key
  • 《docker-compose快速部署elasticsearch-8.x集群+kibana》一文中,的咱们将自签证书从容器中复制出来了,现在在证书所在目录执行以下命令,注意参数expiration代表这个ApiKey的有效期,我这里随意设置为10天
curl -X POST "https://localhost:9200/_security/api_key?pretty" --cacert es01.crt -u elastic:123456 -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
  "name": "my-api-key-10d",
  "expiration": "10d"
}
'
  • 会收到以下响应,其中的encoded字段就是API Key
{
  "id" : "eUV1V4EBucGIxpberGuJ",
  "name" : "my-api-key-10d",
  "expiration" : 1655893738633,
  "api_key" : "YyhSTh9ETz2LKBk3-Iy2ew",
  "encoded" : "ZVVWMVY0RUJ1Y0dJeHBiZXJHdUo6WXloU1RoOUVUejJMS0JrMy1JeTJldw=="
}

Java应用连接elasticsearch的核心套路

  • 不论是直连,还是带安全检查的连接,亦或是与SpringBoot的集成使之更方便易用,都紧紧围绕着一个不变的核心套路,该套路由两部分组成,掌握了它们就能在各种条件下成功连接es
  1. 首先,是builder pattern,连接es有关的代码,各种对象都是其builder对象的build方法创建的,建议您提前阅读《java与es8实战之一》一文,看完后,满屏的builder代码可以从丑变成美...
  2. 其次,就是java应用能向es发请求的关键:ElasticsearchClient对象,该对象的创建是有套路的,如下图,先创建RestClient,再基于RestClient创建ElasticsearchTransport,最后基于ElasticsearchTransport创建ElasticsearchClient,这是个固定的套路,咱们后面的操作都是基于此的,可能会加一点东西,但不会改变流程和图中的对象
    在这里插入图片描述
  • 准备完毕,开始写代码

新建子工程

  • 为了便于管理依赖库版本和源码,《java与es8实战》系列的所有代码都以子工程的形式存放在父工程elasticsearch-tutorials

  • 《java与es8实战之二:实战前的准备工作》一文说明了创建父工程的详细过程

  • 在父工程elasticsearch-tutorials中新建名为crud-with-security的子工程,其pom.xml内容如下

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <!-- 请改为自己项目的parent坐标 -->
    <parent>
        <artifactId>elasticsearch-tutorials</artifactId>
        <groupId>com.bolingcavalry</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        <relativePath>../pom.xml</relativePath>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.bolingcavalry</groupId>
    <!-- 请改为自己项目的artifactId -->
    <artifactId>crud-with-security</artifactId>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <!-- 请改为自己项目的name -->
    <name>crud-with-security</name>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <url>https://github.com/zq2599</url>

    <!--不用spring-boot-starter-parent作为parent时的配置-->
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>

                <version>${springboot.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- 不加这个,configuration类中,IDEA总会添加一些提示 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-configuration-processor</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>

            <!-- exclude junit 4 -->
            <exclusions>
                <exclusion>
                    <groupId>junit</groupId>
                    <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
                </exclusion>
            </exclusions>

        </dependency>

        <!-- junit 5 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit-jupiter-api</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- elasticsearch引入依赖  start -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>co.elastic.clients</groupId>
            <artifactId>elasticsearch-java</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
            <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- 使用spring boot Maven插件时需要添加该依赖 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>jakarta.json</groupId>
            <artifactId>jakarta.json-api</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <!-- 需要此插件,在执行mvn test命令时才会执行单元测试 -->
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.0.0-M4</version>
                <configuration>
                    <skipTests>false</skipTests>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>

            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <excludes>
                        <exclude>
                            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
                            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
                        </exclude>
                    </excludes>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>

        <resources>
            <resource>
                <directory>src/main/resources</directory>
                <includes>
                    <include>**/*.*</include>
                </includes>
            </resource>
        </resources>
    </build>
</project>

配置文件

  • 为了成功连接es,需要两个配置文件:SpringBoot常规的配置application.yml和es的自签证书
  • 首先是application.yml,如下所示,因为本篇要验证两种授权方式,所以账号、密码、apiKey全部填写在配置文件中,如下所示
elasticsearch:
  username: elastic
  passwd: 123456
  apikey: ZVVWMVY0RUJ1Y0dJeHBiZXJHdUo6WXloU1RoOUVUejJMS0JrMy1JeTJldw==
  # 多个IP逗号隔开
  hosts: 127.0.0.1:9200

编码:启动类

  • SpringBoot启动类,平淡无奇的那种
@SpringBootApplication
public class SecurityApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SecurityApplication.class, args);
    }
}

编码:配置文件

  • 接下来是全文的重点:通过Config类向Spring环境注册服务bean,这里有这两处要注意的地方

  • 第一个要注意的地方:向Spring环境注册的服务bean一共有两个,它们都是ElasticsearchClient类型,一个基于账号密码认证,另一个基于apiKey认证

  • 第二个要注意的地方:SpringBoot向es服务端发起的是https请求,这就要求在建立连接的时候使用正确的证书,也就是刚才咱们从容器中复制出来再放入application.yml所在目录的es01.crt文件,使用证书的操作发生在创建ElasticsearchTransport对象的时候,属于前面总结的套路步骤中的一步,如下图红框所示

image-20220710215632738

  • 配置类的详细代码如下,有几处需要注意的地方稍后会说明
package com.bolingcavalry.security.config;

import co.elastic.clients.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchClient;
import co.elastic.clients.json.jackson.JacksonJsonpMapper;
import co.elastic.clients.transport.ElasticsearchTransport;
import co.elastic.clients.transport.rest_client.RestClientTransport;
import lombok.Setter;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.apache.http.Header;
import org.apache.http.HttpHost;
import org.apache.http.auth.AuthScope;
import org.apache.http.auth.UsernamePasswordCredentials;
import org.apache.http.client.CredentialsProvider;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.NoopHostnameVerifier;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.BasicCredentialsProvider;
import org.apache.http.impl.nio.client.HttpAsyncClientBuilder;
import org.apache.http.message.BasicHeader;
import org.apache.http.ssl.SSLContextBuilder;
import org.apache.http.ssl.SSLContexts;
import org.elasticsearch.client.RestClient;
import org.elasticsearch.client.RestClientBuilder;
import org.elasticsearch.client.RestClientBuilder.HttpClientConfigCallback;
import org.springframework.boot.context.properties.ConfigurationProperties;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;

import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.security.KeyManagementException;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.KeyStoreException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.cert.Certificate;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.CertificateFactory;

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "elasticsearch") //配置的前缀
@Configuration
@Slf4j
public class ClientConfig {

    @Setter
    private String hosts;

    @Setter
    private String username;

    @Setter
    private String passwd;

    @Setter
    private String apikey;

    /**
     * 解析配置的字符串,转为HttpHost对象数组
     * @return
     */
    private HttpHost[] toHttpHost() {
        if (!StringUtils.hasLength(hosts)) {
            throw new RuntimeException("invalid elasticsearch configuration");
        }

        String[] hostArray = hosts.split(",");
        HttpHost[] httpHosts = new HttpHost[hostArray.length];
        HttpHost httpHost;
        for (int i = 0; i < hostArray.length; i++) {
            String[] strings = hostArray[i].split(":");
            httpHost = new HttpHost(strings[0], Integer.parseInt(strings[1]), "https");
            httpHosts[i] = httpHost;
        }

        return httpHosts;
    }

    @Bean
    public ElasticsearchClient clientByPasswd() throws Exception {
        ElasticsearchTransport transport = getElasticsearchTransport(username, passwd, toHttpHost());
        return new ElasticsearchClient(transport);
    }

    private static SSLContext buildSSLContext() {
        ClassPathResource resource = new ClassPathResource("es01.crt");
        SSLContext sslContext = null;
        try {
            CertificateFactory factory = CertificateFactory.getInstance("X.509");
            Certificate trustedCa;
            try (InputStream is = resource.getInputStream()) {
                trustedCa = factory.generateCertificate(is);
            }
            KeyStore trustStore = KeyStore.getInstance("pkcs12");
            trustStore.load(null, null);
            trustStore.setCertificateEntry("ca", trustedCa);
            SSLContextBuilder sslContextBuilder = SSLContexts.custom()
                    .loadTrustMaterial(trustStore, null);
            sslContext = sslContextBuilder.build();
        } catch (CertificateException | IOException | KeyStoreException | NoSuchAlgorithmException |
                 KeyManagementException e) {
            log.error("ES连接认证失败", e);
        }

        return sslContext;
    }

    private static ElasticsearchTransport getElasticsearchTransport(String username, String passwd, HttpHost...hosts) {
        // 账号密码的配置
        final CredentialsProvider credentialsProvider = new BasicCredentialsProvider();
        credentialsProvider.setCredentials(AuthScope.ANY, new UsernamePasswordCredentials(username, passwd));

        // 自签证书的设置,并且还包含了账号密码
        HttpClientConfigCallback callback = httpAsyncClientBuilder -> httpAsyncClientBuilder
                .setSSLContext(buildSSLContext())
                .setSSLHostnameVerifier(NoopHostnameVerifier.INSTANCE)
                .setDefaultCredentialsProvider(credentialsProvider);

        // 用builder创建RestClient对象
        RestClient client = RestClient
                           .builder(hosts)
                           .setHttpClientConfigCallback(callback)
                           .build();

        return new RestClientTransport(client, new JacksonJsonpMapper());
    }

    private static ElasticsearchTransport getElasticsearchTransport(String apiKey, HttpHost...hosts) {
        // 将ApiKey放入header中
        Header[] headers = new Header[] {new BasicHeader("Authorization", "ApiKey " + apiKey)};

        // es自签证书的设置
        HttpClientConfigCallback callback = httpAsyncClientBuilder -> httpAsyncClientBuilder
                .setSSLContext(buildSSLContext())
                .setSSLHostnameVerifier(NoopHostnameVerifier.INSTANCE);

        // 用builder创建RestClient对象
        RestClient client = RestClient
                           .builder(hosts)
                           .setHttpClientConfigCallback(callback)
                           .setDefaultHeaders(headers)
                           .build();

        return new RestClientTransport(client, new JacksonJsonpMapper());
    }

    @Bean
    public ElasticsearchClient clientByApiKey() throws Exception {
        ElasticsearchTransport transport = getElasticsearchTransport(apikey, toHttpHost());
        return new ElasticsearchClient(transport);
    }
}
  • 上述代码有以下几处需要注意
  1. 这个配置类为业务代码提供了两个服务bean,作用是操作es,这两个服务bean分别由clientByPasswdclientByApiKey两个方法负责提供
  2. 名为getElasticsearchTransport的方法有两个,分别负责配置两种鉴权方式:账号密码和apiKey
  3. 设置证书的操作被封装在buildSSLContext方法中,在创建ElasticsearchTransport对象的时候会用到

编码:业务类

  • 既然两个ElasticsearchClient对象都已经注册到Spring环境,那么只要在业务类中注入就能用来操作es了

  • 新建业务类ESService.java,如下,可见通过Resource注解选择了账号密码鉴权的ElasticsearchClient对象

package com.bolingcavalry.security.service;

import co.elastic.clients.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchClient;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import javax.annotation.Resource;
import java.io.IOException;

@Service
public class ESService {

    @Resource(name="clientByPasswd")
    private ElasticsearchClient elasticsearchClient;

    public void addIndex(String name) throws IOException {
        elasticsearchClient.indices().create(c -> c.index(name));
    }

    public boolean indexExists(String name) throws IOException {
        return elasticsearchClient.indices().exists(b -> b.index(name)).value();
    }

    public void delIndex(String name) throws IOException {
        elasticsearchClient.indices().delete(c -> c.index(name));
    }
}
  • 至此,基本功能算是开发完成了,接下来编写单元测试代码,验证能否成功操作es8

编码:单元测试

  • 新增单元测试类ESServiceTest.java,如下,功能是调用业务类ESService执行创建、删除、查找等索引操作
package com.bolingcavalry.security.service;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class ESServiceTest {

    @Autowired
    ESService esService;

    @Test
    void addIndex() throws Exception {
        String indexName = "test_index";

        Assertions.assertFalse(esService.indexExists(indexName));
        esService.addIndex(indexName);
        Assertions.assertTrue(esService.indexExists(indexName));
        esService.delIndex(indexName);
        Assertions.assertFalse(esService.indexExists(indexName));
    }
}
  • 编码完成,开始验证

验证:账号密码鉴权

  • 现在ESService中使用的es服务类是账号密码鉴权的,运行单元测试,看看是否可以成功操作ES,如下图,符合预期
    在这里插入图片描述

验证:ApiKey鉴权

  • 再来试试ApiKey鉴权操作es,修改ESService.java源码,改动如下图红框所示
    在这里插入图片描述

  • 为了检查创建的索引是否符合预期,注释掉单元测试类中删除索引的代码,如下图,如此一来,单元测试执行完成后,新增的索引还保留在es环境中
    在这里插入图片描述

  • 再执行一次单元测试,依旧符合预期
    在这里插入图片描述

  • 用eshead查看,可见索引创建成功
    在这里插入图片描述

  • 至此,SpringBoot操作带有安全检查的elasticsearch8的实战就完成了,在SpringData提供elasticsearch8操作的库之前,基于es官方原生client库的操作是常见的elasticsearch8访问方式,希望本文能给您一些参考

源码下载

名称 链接 备注
项目主页 https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos 该项目在GitHub上的主页
git仓库地址(https) https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos.git 该项目源码的仓库地址,https协议
git仓库地址(ssh) git@github.com:zq2599/blog_demos.git 该项目源码的仓库地址,ssh协议
  • 这个git项目中有多个文件夹,本次实战的源码在elasticsearch-tutorials文件夹下,如下图红框
    在这里插入图片描述
  • elasticsearch-tutorials是个父工程,里面有多个module,本篇实战的module是crud-with-security,如下图红框
    在这里插入图片描述

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原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/bolingcavalry/p/17658362.html

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