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基于Unity实现2D边缘检测
来源:jb51  时间:2022/4/11 18:16:20  对本文有异议

一、ShaderLab

1.Alpha值边缘检测

根据图片的Alpha值边缘判定,向内扩一段距离做边缘,颜色设置未描边颜色;

片元着色阶段,向上下左右四个方向做检测,有一个点的透明度为0,判定为边缘;

Shader "2DOutline"
{
	Properties
	{
		_MainTex("Texture", 2D) = "white" {}
		_LineWidth("Width",Range(0,0.4)) = 1.0
		_LineColor("LineColor",color) = (1,1,1,1)
		_Intensity("Intensity",Range(1,10)) = 1.0
	}

	SubShader
	{
		Tags { "RenderType" = "Opaque" "Queue" = "Transparent"}
		Blend SrcAlpha OneMinusSrcAlpha
		
		Pass
		{
			CGPROGRAM
			#pragma vertex vert
			#pragma fragment frag

			#include "UnityCG.cginc"

			struct appdata
			{
				float4 vertex : POSITION;
				float2 uv : TEXCOORD0;
			};

			struct v2f
			{
				float2 uv : TEXCOORD0;
				float4 vertex : SV_POSITION;
			};

			sampler2D _MainTex;
			float4 _MainTex_ST;
			fixed _LineWidth;
			float4 _LineColor;
			fixed _Intensity;

			v2f vert(appdata v)
			{
				v2f o;
				o.vertex = UnityObjectToClipPos(v.vertex);
				o.uv = TRANSFORM_TEX(v.uv, _MainTex);
				return o;
			}

			fixed4 frag(v2f i) : SV_Target
			{
				fixed4 col = tex2D(_MainTex, i.uv);
				// 采样周围4个点
				float2 up_uv = i.uv + float2(0, 1) * _LineWidth * 1 / 10 * _MainTex_ST.xy;
				float2 down_uv = i.uv + float2(0,-1) * _LineWidth * 1 / 10 * _MainTex_ST.xy;
				float2 left_uv = i.uv + float2(-1,0) * _LineWidth * 1 / 10 * _MainTex_ST.xy;
				float2 right_uv = i.uv + float2(1,0) * _LineWidth * 1 / 10 * _MainTex_ST.xy;
				// 如果有一个点透明度为0 说明是边缘
				float w = tex2D(_MainTex,up_uv).a * tex2D(_MainTex,down_uv).a * tex2D(_MainTex,left_uv).a * tex2D(_MainTex,right_uv).a;

				if (w == 0) {
					col.rgb = lerp(_LineColor * _Intensity, col.rgb, w);
				}

				return col;
			}
		ENDCG
		} 
	}
}

如果图片内容恰好铺满整张图,没有alpha值,方法不适用;下图底部边缘消失了;

2.卷积边缘检测

在屏幕后处理阶段,使用卷积做边缘检测;

卷积:根据像素周围八个方向的像素的计算出新的像素值;

边缘检测卷积算子,都包含水平和竖直两个方向的卷积核;

梯度公式:G = sqrt(Gx*Gx + Gy*Gy);

考虑性能问题,使用:G = |Gx|+|Gy|;

顶点着色器计算卷积纹理采样坐标,减少计算量(片元数量更多);

片元着色阶段Sobel卷积计算,插值获得片元像素颜色;

Sobel计算结果和梯度Gradient比较,大于梯度和EdgeColor做插值;

屏幕后效调用OnRenderImage接口;

Shader "EdgeDetection" 
{
	Properties{
		_MainTex("Base (RGB)", 2D) = "white" {}
		_EdgeColor("Edge Color", Color) = (0, 0, 0, 1)		
        //卷积梯度
		_Gradient("Gradient",float) =0.0
	}
	SubShader{
		Pass 
		{
			ZTest Always Cull Off ZWrite Off

			CGPROGRAM

			#include "UnityCG.cginc"

			#pragma vertex vert  
			#pragma fragment frag

			sampler2D _MainTex;
			uniform half4 _MainTex_TexelSize;
			//fixed _EdgeOnly;
			fixed4 _EdgeColor;
			//fixed4 _BackgroundColor;
			fixed _Gradient;

			struct v2f {
				float4 pos : SV_POSITION;
				half2 uv[9] : TEXCOORD0;
			};

			v2f vert(appdata_img v) {
				v2f o;
				o.pos = UnityObjectToClipPos(v.vertex);

				half2 uv = v.texcoord;

				o.uv[0] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(-1, -1);
				o.uv[1] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(0, -1);
				o.uv[2] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(1, -1);
				o.uv[3] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(-1, 0);
				o.uv[4] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(0, 0);
				o.uv[5] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(1, 0);
				o.uv[6] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(-1, 1);
				o.uv[7] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(0, 1);
				o.uv[8] = uv + _MainTex_TexelSize.xy * half2(1, 1);

				return o;
			}

			fixed luminance(fixed4 color) {
				return  0.2125 * color.r + 0.7154 * color.g + 0.0721 * color.b;
			}

			half Sobel(v2f i) {
				const half Gx[9] = {    -1,  0,  1,
										-2,  0,  2,
										-1,  0,  1};
				const half Gy[9] = {   -1, -2, -1,
										0,  0,  0,
										1,  2,  1};

				half texColor;
				half edgeX = 0;
				half edgeY = 0;
				for (int it = 0; it < 9; it++) {
					texColor = luminance(tex2D(_MainTex, i.uv[it]));
					edgeX += texColor * Gx[it];
					edgeY += texColor * Gy[it];
				}

				half edge = 1 - abs(edgeX) - abs(edgeY);

				return edge;
			}

			fixed4 frag(v2f i) : SV_Target {
				half edge = Sobel(i);

				fixed4 col = tex2D(_MainTex, i.uv[4]);

				if(edge> _Gradient)
					col = lerp(_EdgeColor, tex2D(_MainTex, i.uv[4]), edge);				
				
				return col;
			}

			ENDCG
		}
	}
	FallBack Off
}

二、ShaderGraph

抓取图片缓冲,上下左右四个方位平移,乘以描边颜色;

四张图合并,减去原图范围的像素,只剩边缘;

最后将原图和边缘合并(可插值使边缘柔和);

升级项目到URP,修改projectsetting-graphic-pielinesettings;

导入ShaderGraph包,开始拖拖拽拽,真的香,效果好,速度快,思路清晰;

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 友情链接: NPS